Klöster und Feste

Lamayuru (Yuru Kabgyat) - Hemis Tsechu - Shashukul Gustor - Phyang Tsedup - Karsha Gustor - Korzok Gustor - Trak Tok Tsechu - Sani Nasryal - Diskit Gustor - Thikse Gustor - Chemre Angchok - Padum Gustor - Spituk Gustor - Likir ( Dosmoche) - Stok Guru Tsechu (Orakel) - Matho Nagrang (Oracles)

Montag, 28. Dezember 2015

The Solitary Hero

Yamantaka – the Conqueror of Death (Yama) is a ferocious emanation of Manjushri, the essence of the wisdom of all Buddhas. Under this form Manjushri conquered the demon king of Death, Yama, who was depopulating Tibet in his insatiable thirst for victims. The Yamantaka symbolizes the victory of Wisdom over Death, death being associated with ignorance by Buddhists. The teachings of Yamantaka include both philosophy and meditation. Meditation on Yamantaka can have powerful and immediate effects to help the practitioner gain wisdom, vanquish obstacles, attain a long life, and even overcome one's own death.

 
There are many forms of Yamantaka. The present painting is of Yamantaka Ekavira meaning 'solitary hero', the only form which does not embrace a consort. The deity is also called Vajrabhairava Ekavira. The complexion of his body is blue. He has nine faces, three on each side of the main head and one above it, each with three eyes. The main head is that of a fierce buffalo with horns. The topmost head is of Manjushri wearing a crown of jewels. The eight other heads are wearing skull crowns, and their hair rises upward, signifying the deity's enlightenment. He has thirty-four arms. The two main arms hold a cranium and vajra marked chopper. His remaining hands hold tantric symbols. He has sixteen legs, eight on each side. Lying face down under his bent right legs are one human male and six animals that are, in turn, stepping on four devas. Under his outstretched left legs, eight birds are also stepping on four devas. Yamantaka wears an elephant skin cloak, garland of freshly cut human heads, and bone ornaments. The figure is unclothed except for his adornment. There is a flame aureole behind him.

The Four Harmonious friends (mthun-po spun-bzhi, Skt. catvari anukulabhratr)

THE GROUP OF SYMBOLS CONSISTS of the following animals:

1). The Partridge or Grouse (gong-ma-sreg, Skt. kapinjala)
2). The Hare (ri-bong, Skt. sasa)
3). The Monkey (spre'u, Skt. kapi)
4). The Elephant (glang-po-che, Skt. hastin)

 
The fable of the Four Harmonious Brother is told in the canonical text, the Foundation of Discipline ('Dul-ba gzhi, Skt. Vinayavastu). Buddha Sakyamuni is supposed to have told it to his disciples in order to impress on them the importance of mutual respect and the practice of the Buddhist virtues. The following short account comes from Panglung Rinpoche's German version of the narratives found in the Mulasarvastivada-vinaya:
Once there lived in the forest a partridge, a hare, a monkey, and an elephant, who were friends. With the aid of a tree, they established their respective ages, and accordingly, the younger animals respected the elder ones. They obeyed the law and lived a virtuous life. Soon, all the animals adopted their ways, and eventually the king of the country did likewise. On this account, peace and happiness prevailed in the land, and this was praised by Indra. Buddha was the partridge, Sariputra the monkey, Maudgalyayana the elephant, and Ananda was the hare.

It is clearly a deeply rooted wish in various cultures to propagate the message of unity, harmony, and collaboration as valuable factors for survival, and fables are often employed for this purpose. In the West, there is the somewhat similar tale of the Bremen Town Musicians, told by the Brothers Grimm. The tale of the Four Harmonious Brothers was no less beloved in ancient India, and remains so to this day in Tibet and Mongolia.

In pictures, the animals are always shown as a pyramid with the partridge at the top, under him, the hare carried by the monkey, who is sitting on the elephant. Whether this pyramid represents the different generations, the social classes, or simply the cooperation of different types of individuals, in any case they are meant to show the viewer the benefits of cooperation for the general good.

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Dienstag, 8. Dezember 2015

PASHMINA





About the Book:

A four-thousand-year-old sandstone bust depicts a bearded priest covering his left shoulder with a shawl of mantle. Even today Indian men wear shawls similarly. In fact, the woolen tradition in India spans more than four millennia, right from the days of the ancient Indus civilization.
Pashmina is an adventure of considerable scope and daring, taking you through a grand tour of the finest fabric known to the world. Its subject matter is nothing less than Indian textile history brought up to date with the patterns and colours of present-day attire.
At first, the book presents an overview: the royal patronage that nourished the industry, the techniques that went into the making of a pashmina shawl, the slow and subtle evolution of brilliant motifs. It then goes on to present a more detailed picture: individual patterns, their differences in style, and their continuity with or departure from tradition.
A brilliantly illustrated book, Pashmina brings out vividly, in colour and in detail, the particular inspiration that guides each thread within a pashmina fabric.

About the Author:

ANAMIKA PATHAK is a Deputy Curator (Decorative Arts and Textiles) in the National Museum, New Delhi, where she has worked for over two decades, gaining expertise in museology, decorative arts and textiles, and archaeology. A student of Ancient Indian History and Buddhist Studies, she participates actively in seminars, lectures and talks and has put up several exhibitions abroad.
Keenly interested in research, her work has been published in several national and international research journals on textiles, arts and museology. More than two dozen research papers have been published in Marg, Arts of Asia, National Museum Bulletin, National Museum Institute Bulletin and Puratana.
She has also contributed towards catalogues for Alamakar, Singapore: 1994; Jewels from India, Milan: 1996; Arts of Sikh Kingdom, London: 1999 and Islamic Arts of India, Malaysia: 2002. She has also done a research project with the Nehru Trust and the Victoria and Albert Museum titled, 'Painting on Ivory'.

CONTENTS

The Historical Wrap: Woollens Since the Ages
Materials and Methods: Making the Shawl
Designs on the Loom: The Kanikar Style
Wrapped in Shawl
Embroidering Magic: Amlikar Artistry
Appendix: Woollen Costumes & Jamawar
Glossary
Bibliography

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